Sustained efforts and continued funding by federal, state, tribal, and local agencies are needed to reverse declines of our fish populations. It is estimated that the cost of habitat-related recovery actions between 2010 and 2019 in the lower Columbia region could top $1.25 billion. This estimate does not include need for improved hatchery, harvest, and population monitoring, as well as reporting needs. Funding constraints make it unlikely that such levels can be achieved. Progress toward recovery will require careful planning and priority setting to make the best use of available resources. Partnerships will play a key role in leveraging resources and creating cost-effective recovery approaches.