National Marine Fisheries Service. (2022). Fisheries Economics of the United States, 2019. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-229A, 236 p.
Mojica, J., and Fletcher, A., 2020. Economic Analysis of Outdoor Recreation in Washington State, 2020 Update. Earth Economics. Tacoma, WA.
Cederholm, C.J., Johnson, D.H., Bilby, R.E., Dominguez, L.G., Garrett, A.M., Graeber, W.H., Greda, E.L., Kunze, M.D., Marcot, B.G., Palmisano, J.F., Plotnikoff, R.W., Pearcy, W.G., Simenstad, C.A., and Trotter, P.C. (2000). Pacific Salmon and Wildlife–Ecological Contexts, Relationships, and Implications for Management. Special Edition Technical Report, Prepared for D. H. Johnson and T. A. O’Neil (managing directors), Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
Kraig, E. and Scalici, T. (2022). Washington State Sport Catch Report. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. Olympia, WA.
This report uses “population groups” to refer to Evolutionarily Significant Units for salmon populations and Distinct Population Segments for steelhead and bull trout, designations which are used by the federal government for listing fish under the Endangered Species Act.
Canty, D. (2011). Funding for Salmon Recovery in Washington State. Evergreen Funding Consultants, Olympia, WA.
Shedd, J. (2020) Unpublished analysis of 60-day low-flow data from 47 U.S. Geological Survey gages. Washington Department of Ecology, March 23, 2020.
Mote, P.W., Li, S., Lettenmaier, D.P., Xiao, M., and Engel, R. (2018) Dramatic declines in snowpack in the western US Climate and Atmospheric Science (1).
Mauger, G.S., Casola, J.H., Morgan, H.A., Strauch, R.L., Jones, B., Curry, B., Busch Isaksen, T.M, Whitely Binder, L., Krosby, M.B., and Snover, A.K. (2015). State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound. Report prepared for the Puget Sound Partnership and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, Seattle. http://cses.washington.edu/picea/mauger/ps-sok/PS-SoK_2015.pdf Accessed December 12, 2022.
Snover, A.K., Mauger, G.S., Whitely Binder, L.C., Krosby, M., and Tohver, I. (2013) Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Washington State: Technical Summaries for Decision Makers. Climate Impacts Group, prepared for the Washington State Department of Ecology by University of Washington Climate Impacts Group.
Crozier, L., Mcclure, M., Beechie, T., Bograd, S., Boughton, D., Carr, M., Cooney, T., Dunham, J., Greene, C., Haltuch, M., Hazen, E., Holzer, D., Huff, D., Johnson, R., Jordan, C., Kaplan, I., Lindleyid, S., Mantua, N., Moyle, P., and Willis-Norton, E. (2019). Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. PLoS ONE 14(7).
Lan, X., Tans, P. and Thoning, K.W. (2022) Trends in globally-averaged CO2 determined from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Laboratory measurements. Version 2022-12 NOAA/GML https://gml.noaa.gov/ccgg/trends/ Accessed December 13, 2022.
Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification (2012). Ocean Acidification: From Knowledge to Action, Washington State’s Strategic Response. Publication no. 12-01-015. H. Adelsman and L. Whitely Binder (eds). Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA. https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/documents/1201015.pdf Accessed on November 9, 2020.
Williams, C.R., Dittman, A.H., McElhany, P., Shallin Busch, D., Maher, M.T., Bammler, T.K., MacDonald, J.W., and Gallagher, E.P. (2019). Elevated CO2 impairs olfactory-mediated neural and behavioral responses and gene expression in ocean-phase coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Global Change Biology 25(3).
Jacox, M., Alexander, M., Mantua, N., Scott, J., Hervieux, G., Webb, R., and Werner, F. (2018). Forcing of Multiyear Extreme Ocean Temperatures that Impacted California Current Living Marine Resources in 2016. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 99(1).
Washington State Office of Financial Management (2021) Forecast of the State Population: December 2021 Forecast. Forecasting & Research Division, Washington State Office of Financial Management, Olympia, WA.
Washington State Department of Ecology and King County. (2011) Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound: Assessment of Selected Toxic Chemicals in the Puget Sound Basin, 2007-2011. Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA and King County Department of Natural Resources, Seattle, WA. Ecology Publication No. 11-03-055. www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/1103055.html.
Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification (2012): Ocean Acidification: From Knowledge to Action, Washington State’s Strategic Response. H. Adelsman and L. Whitely Binder (eds). Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, Washington. Publication no. 12-01-015, p. 43, https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/documents/1201015.pdf Accessed on November 9, 2020.
Young, A., Kochenkov, V., McIntyre, J.K., Stark, J.D., and Coffin, A.B. (2018) Urban stormwater runoff negatively impacts lateral line development in larval zebrafish and salmon embryos. Scientific Reports. 8(1). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-21209-z.
Tian, Z., Zhao, H., Peter, K. T., Gonzalez, M., Wetzel, J., Wu, C., … & Kolodziej, E. P. (2021). A ubiquitous tire rubber–derived chemical induces acute mortality in coho salmon. Science, 371(6525), 185-189.
Tian, Z., Gonzalez, M., Rideout, C.A., Zhao, H.N., Hu, X., Wetzel, J., Mudrock, E., James, C.A., McIntyre, J.K., and Kolodziej, E.P. (2022) 6PPD-Quinone: Revised Toxicity Assessment and Quantification with a Commercial Standard. Environmental Science & Technology Letter 9(2), 140-146.
Spromberg J.A., Baldwin D.H., Damm S.E., McIntyre J.K., Huff M., Sloan C.A., Anulacion B.F., Davis J.W., and Scholz N.L. (2016) Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 53(2).
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (2021). Biennial Report on the Development of a Statewide Fish Passage Barrier Removal Strategy. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington State Department of Transportation, and Brian Abbott Fish Barrier Removal Board. Olympia, WA.
Economic Analysis of the Non-Treaty Commercial and Recreational Fisheries in Washington State, TCW Economics, Sacramento, CA. December 2008, p.23. This statistic is only for Washington and does not include tribal fishing or the jobs that fish produced in Washington create in Alaska, Oregon, and Canada.
Tania Briceno and Greg Schundler, Economic Analysis of Outdoor Recreation in Washington State, Earth Economics, Tacoma, WA, January 2015, p. 69.