Citations

Citations

Citations

  1. Tribes can be found online at the Governor’s Office of Indian Affairs at <https://goia.wa.gov/tribal-directory>.
  2. “Species” in this report refers to Evolutionarily Significant Units and Distinct Population Segments of salmon and steelhead that are substantially reproductively isolated from other populations and contribute substantially to the evolutionary legacy of the biological species. Data for Snake River sockeye, which travel through Washington but do not spawn in the state, are not included in this report.
  3. Economic Analysis of the Non-Treaty Commercial and Recreational Fisheries in Washington State, TCW Economics, Sacramento, CA. December 2008, p.23. This statistic is only for Washington and does not include tribal fishing or the jobs that fish produced in Washington create in Alaska, Oregon, and Canada.
  4. C. Jeff Cederholm et al, Pacific Salmon and Wildlife–Ecological Contexts, Relationships, and Implications for Management. Special Edition Technical Report, Wildlife-Habitat Relationships in Oregon and Washington. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA, 2000, p. 35.
  5. Tania Briceno and Greg Schundler, Economic Analysis of Outdoor Recreation in Washington State, Earth Economics, Tacoma, WA, January 2015, p. 69.
  6. Statistic is for salmon bought at a store and fresh salmon bought at a local grocery store or fish market (frozen fish excluded). Washington Department of Ecology, Fish Consumption Rates: Technical Support Document, Olympia, WA, 2013, p. 14.
  7. Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian, Native Knowledge 360o, Pacific Coast Region, <https://americanindian.si.edu/nk360/pnw-history-culture-regions/pacific-coast#:~:text=Native%20Nations%20of%20the%20Pacific,salmon’s%20sacrifice%20in%20special%20ceremonies>, accessed on June 3, 2020.
  8. The State of Our Watersheds report may be found online at <https://nwifc.org/publications/state-of-our-watersheds/>.
  9. Kristin Bonner and Michael Hibbard, The Economic and Community Effects of Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board Investments in Watershed Restoration, Ecosystem Workforce Program Institute for a Sustainable Environment, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, July 15, 2002, p. 1
  10. Dennis Canty, Funding for Salmon Recovery in Washington State, Evergreen Funding Consultants, Olympia WA, March 2011, p. 6, <https://rco.wa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/GSRO-SalmonRecoveryFundingEvergreen-2011.pdf>, accessed on December 18, 2020.
  11. Max Nielsen-Pincus and Cassandra Moseley, Economic and Employment Impacts of Forest and Watershed Restoration in Oregon, Ecosystem Workforce Program, Institute for a Sustainable Environment, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, Spring 2010, p. 9, <http://ewp.uoregon.edu/sites/ewp.uoregon.edu/files/downloads/WP24.pdf>, accessed on December 19, 2020.
  12. Salmon Facts, Pacific Salmon Foundation, Vancouver, B.C., <https://www.psf.ca/learn/salmon-facts,%20accessed%20on%20June%2012>, accessed on June 12, 2020.
  13. Forecast of the State Population, Washington State Office of Financial Management Forecasting & Research Division, Olympia, WA, 2019, p. 3, <https://www.ofm.wa.gov/sites/default/files/public/dataresearch/pop/stfc/stfc_2019.pdf>, accessed on June 11, 2020; Population for 1990 from Intercensal Estimates of April 1 Population and Housing, 1990-2000, Washington State Office of Financial Management Forecasting & Research Division, Olympia WA, <https://www.ofm.wa.gov/washington-data-research/population-demographics/population-estimates/historical-estimates-april-1-population-and-housing-state-counties-and-cities>, accessed on June 24, 2020.
  14. Puget Sound Vital Signs, Puget Sound Partnership, <https://vitalsigns.pugetsoundinfo.wa.gov/VitalSign/Detail/16>, accessed on June 11, 2020.
  15. Puget Sound Vital Signs, Puget Sound Partnership, <https://vitalsigns.pugetsoundinfo.wa.gov/VitalSign/Detail/16>, accessed on June 11, 2020.
  16. Treaty Tribes in Western Washington, 2020 State of Our Watersheds, 2020, Olympia, WA, p. 31, <https://nwifc.org/publications/state-of-our-watersheds/>, accessed on November 12, 2020.
  17. University of Washington, Puget Sound Institute, Encyclopedia of Puget Sound: Stormwater, <https://www.eopugetsound.org/articles/stormwater-facts>, accessed on October 16,2020.
  18. Washington Stormwater Center, Research section of Web Site, <https://www.wastormwatercenter.org/research/>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  19. Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification, Ocean Acidification: From Knowledge to Action, Washington State’s Strategic Response, H. Adelsman and L. Whitely Binder (eds), Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA, 2012, Publication no. 12-01-015, p. 43, <https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/documents/1201015.pdf>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  20. Salmon face double whammy from toxic stormwater, Washington State University, published by Science X, Phys.org, <https://phys.org/news/2018-02-salmon-whammy-toxic-stormwater.html>, accessed on June 12, 2020.
  21. Julann Spromberg et al., Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts, Journal of Applied Ecology, April 2016, pp. 402-405.
  22. K. Lea Knutson and Virginia L. Naef, Management Recommendations for Washington’s Priority Habitats, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia WA, December 1997, p. xi, <https://wdfw.wa.gov/sites/default/files/publications/00029/wdfw00029.pdf>, accessed on September 18 2020.
  23. Menne et al., Office of the Washington State Climatologist PNW Trends Interactive Map; 2009 <https://climate.washington.edu/climate-data/trendanalysisapp/>, accessed on June 8, 2020.
  24. Guillaume Mauger et al., State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound, Climate Impacts Group, prepared for the Puget Sound Partnership and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, University of Washington doi:10.7915/CIG93777D, Seattle, WA, 2015, pp. 2-13, 2-14. Full report available at: <https://cig.uw.edu/resources/special-reports/ps-sok/>.
  25. The Washington Department of Ecology analyzed the 60-day, summer, low-flow data from 1975-2018 at 47 stream gages operated by the U.S. Geological Survey throughout Washington. None of the streams are regulated by dams. Of the gauges, 53 percent showed strong or moderate evidence of decreasing 60-day, summer low flows; 6 percent showed strong or moderate evidence of increasing flows; and 40 percent showed little or no significant evidence of increasing or decreasing flows. The term “60-day summer low flow” refers to the lowest 60-day average flow value recorded each day from July 1 through October 31. The recorded flow value on each day corresponds to the average flow over the previous 60 days. For example, the flow value recorded for July 1 denotes the average daily flow from May 3 through July 1. The flow value recorded July 2 refers to the average flow from May 4 through July 2; and so on through October 31. It should be noted the Ecology analysis of streamflow trends focused on summer minimum flows only. The study did not look at annual flow trends or other seasonal flows.
  26. Decline is as of April 1 of each year. Phillip Mote et al. Dramatic declines in snowpack in the western US. Climate and Atmospheric Science. March 2, 2018, p. 3, <https://go.nature. com/39XZEpd>.
  27. Environmental Protection Agency, Tribal Connection: Trends in Stream Temperature in the Snake River, August 2, <https://www.epa.gov/climate-indicators/snake-river>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  28. A.K. Snover et al., Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Washington State: Technical Summaries for Decision Makers, Climate Impacts Group, University of Washington, prepared for the Washington State Department of Ecology, Seattle, 2013, p. 6-1.
  29. Guillaume Mauger et al., State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound, Climate Impacts Group, prepared for the Puget Sound Partnership and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, University of Washington doi:10.7915/CIG93777D, Seattle, WA, 2015, p. 10-3. Full report available at: <https://cig.uw.edu/resources/special-reports/ps-sok/>.
  30. Chris Frans et al., Glacier recession and the response of summer streamflow in the Pacific Northwest United States, 1960-2099, American Geophysical Union, August 9, 2018, p. 1, <http://glaciers.pdx.edu/fountain/MyPapers/FransEtAl2018_GlacierRunoffToStreams.pdf>.
  31. Kara Pitman et al., Glacier Retreat and Pacific Salmon, BioScience, February 2020, pp. 220-236.
  32. National Snow & Ice Data Center, Facts about glaciers, <https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/quickfacts.html>, accessed on June 26, 2020; Kara Pitman et al., Glacier Retreat and Pacific Salmon, BioScience, 2020, pp. 220-236, <https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339984615_Glacier_Retreat_and_Pacific_Salmon>.
  33. Guillaume Mauger et al., State of Knowledge: Climate Change in Puget Sound, Climate Impacts Group, prepared for the Puget Sound Partnership and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, University of Washington, doi:10.7915/CIG93777D, Seattle, WA, 2015, p 3-1. Full report available at <https://cig.uw.edu/resources/special-reports/ps-sok/>.
  34. A.K. Snover et al, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Washington State: Technical Summaries for Decision Makers, Climate Impacts Group, prepared for the Washington State Department of Ecology, Seattle, WA, 2013, p. 6-3.
  35. A.K. Snover et al, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Washington State: Technical Summaries for Decision Makers, Climate Impacts Group, prepared for the Washington State Department of Ecology, Seattle, WA, 2013, p. 6-11.
  36. Iris T. Stewart, et al., Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America, Journal of Climate, La Jolla, CA, July 9, 2004, Volume 18 pp. 1136-1155, <https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/clim/18/8/jcli3321.1.xml?tab_body=pdf>, accessed on December 21, 2020.
  37. Lisa Crozier et al., Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem, PLoS ONE, July 24, 2019, p. 1.
  38. Lisa Crozier et al., Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem, PLoS ONE, July 24, 2019, p. 1.
  39. Theo Stein, Rise of carbon dioxide unabated, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, <https://research.noaa.gov/article/ArtMID/587/ArticleID/2636/Rise-of-carbon-dioxide-unabated>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  40. Washington State Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification (2012): Ocean Acidification: From Knowledge to Action, Washington State’s Strategic Response, H. Adelsman and L. Whitely Binder (eds), Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA, Publication no. 12-01-015, p. xi, <https://fortress.wa.gov/ecy/publications/documents/1201015.pdf>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  41. Chase Williams et al., Salmon may lose the ability to smell danger as carbon emissions rise, Global Change Biology, Vol. 25, Issue 3, December 2018, p. 8.
  42. Michael G. Jacox et al., Forcing of multiyear extreme ocean temperatures that impacted California current living marine resources in 2016 in “Explaining extreme events of 2016 from a climate perspective,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, January 2018, pp. S27-S33.
  43. Lisa Crozier et al., Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem, PLoS ONE 14(7): e0217711, July 2019, p.31, <https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217711&type=printable>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  44. Department of Ecology, Climate change increases the risk of wildfire, n.d., <https://ecology.wa.gov/Air-Climate/Climate-change/Climate-change-the-environment/Wildfire-risks>, accessed on November 23, 2020.
  45. The four state agencies are the Department of Transportation, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Natural Resources, and the State Parks and Recreation Commission.
  46. [1]Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Predation section of Web site, <https://www.nwcouncil.org/fish-and-wildlife/fw-topics/predation>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  47. Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Predation section of Web site, <https://www.nwcouncil.org/fish-and-wildlife/fw-topics/predation>, accessed on November 9, 2020.
  48. Brandon Chasco et al., Estimates of Chinook salmon consumption in Washington State inland waters by four marine mammal predators from 1970 to 2015, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 74, No. 8, August 2017, p. 1.
  49. Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Dams: impacts on salmon and steelhead, <https://www.nwcouncil.org/reports/columbia-river-history/damsimpacts>, accessed on October 28, 2020.
  50. The profile of Mr. Ruckelshaus is available online at <https://stateofsalmon.wa.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/EX-RuckelshausProfile.pdf>.